Thursday, February 13, 2020

Etoudi: Read the complete and detailed biography of Paul Biya

Today February 13, 2020, the President of the Republic Paul Barthélemy Biya'a bi Mvondo celebrates his 87th birthday. Your Cameroon Cameroon web site offers you details on "The Lion Man" that you ignore.

Below complete of Paul Barthélemy Biya'a bi Mvondo 

Paul Biya, born Paul Barthélemy Biya'a bi Mvondo on February 13, 1933 in Mvomeka'a (arrondissement of Meyomessala, department of Dja-et-Lobo, Cameroon), is a man of Cameroonian State, President of the Republic of Cameroon since 1982. 

He quickly climbed the ranks in the government of Ahmadou Ahidjo in the 1960s, serving as minister secretary general of the presidency from 1968 to 1975, then as Prime Minister of Cameroon from 1975 to 1982. He succeeded Ahidjo as head of the state following the latter's surprise resignation in 1982, and consolidated its power after an attempted coup d'etat by the presidential guard in 1983-1984, eliminating all its rivals. Biya maintains close relations between Cameroon and France, one of the country's former colonizers with the United Kingdom and Germany. 

Biya introduced political reforms in the 1980s and, under strong pressure, accelerated the implementation of the multiparty system in the early 1990s. He won the 1992 presidential election with 40% of the votes and was re-elected by a large majority in 1997, 2004, 2011 and 2018. Opposition figures and Western governments report irregularities in the votes and fraud during each election. 

He is currently one of the oldest leaders in place in the world and the oldest in Africa. 

Family 

On ethnicity "Fang-Beti-Bulu" 1 Paul Bartholomew Biya'a Bi Mvondo born in a village in the South, in the equatorial forest, an area under French control, while Cameroon is a "mandated territory of the League of Nations ". 

He is the son of Anastasie Eyenga Ellé and Etienne Mvondo Assam, a catechist who sees in him a future priest and directs him first to the Catholic School of Nden, then to the Seminars of Edea and Akono2. In 1961, he contracted his first marriage to Jeanne-Irène Biya, who died in 1992. Franck Emmanuel Biya is their only son. 

Paul Biya married Chantal Pulcherie Vigouroux for the second time, whose two children he adopted from a previous relationship. From this marriage were born Paul Junior Biya and Anasthasia Brenda Eyenga (“Brenda”). 

Training

After secondary studies at the Lycée Général-Leclerc in Yaoundé, he passed successively in Paris through the Lycée Louis-le-Grand3, the University of the Sorbonne, the Institute of Political Studies, where he obtained a law degree. public in 1961, and the Institute for Advanced Overseas Studies. He did not participate in any form of political activism during his years of study4. 

Political journey 

Beginnings 

He was recommended in 1962 by Louis-Paul Aujoulat to Ahmadou Ahidjo, who appointed him project manager at the presidency of the Republic4. In January 1968, he was appointed Minister Secretary General to the Presidency. 

Prime Minister 

On June 30, 1975, he was appointed Prime Minister by President Ahmadou Ahidjo. He resigned on November 4, 1982 and quickly entered into conflict with his successor. 

The hypothesis of an intervention by the French government in the accession of Paul Biya to the presidency of Cameroon seems likely. 

President of the Republic 

He became President of the Republic on November 6, 1982, after the resignation of President Ahidjo. In 1987, he published the book Pour le liberalisme communautaire. 

On April 6, 1984, he escaped an attempted coup perpetrated by members of the Presidential Guard7. Several of the putschists are arrested and a few executed. Many other personalities are also arrested and imprisoned for this purpose. Associated with the failed coup, former President Ahidjo will be sentenced to death in absentia and later pardoned by President Biya. The repression particularly targets the northern regions, where hundreds of people are killed. Paul Biya therefore took over the single party, which he renamed the Democratic Gathering of the Cameroonian people.

The only candidate, he was elected president in 1984 and 1988. He adopted a structural adjustment plan presented to him by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank: privatization, opening up to competition, reduction in social spending, etc. . The salaries of civil servants are reduced by 60%, the informal sector increased very significantly, but the ruling classes are not affected by this program. The 1,000 Cameroonian blue bill issued from 1985 bears his effigy 

In the early 1990s, following civil disobedience operations, dubbed “Dead Cities”, and riots, he accelerated the implementation of the multiparty system. It removes the “counter-subversive” legislation introduced by its predecessor, thereby restoring freedom of association, and allows an independent press to start publishing. This democratization has reached its limits: the government continues to resort to electoral fraud and exploits the judicial and police apparatuses against the opposition. 

In 1992, during the first multi-party elections, he was victorious against John Fru Ndi with a slight advantage (40% against 36%), which the opposition contested. He then won the presidential elections of 1997 (92.6%) and 2004 (70.9%). 

His regime is supported by France, which supplies it with weapons and trains its repressive forces. France is the leading foreign investor, ahead of the United States. One hundred and five French subsidiaries are established in all key sectors (petroleum, wood, construction, mobile telephony, transport, banking, insurance, etc.). 

The country is experiencing some positive changes in terms of construction and major projects, especially in the road and energy fields. 

In December 2007, during his end of year speech to the nation, he announced his intention to amend the Constitution, which limits the presidential term to two years. Highly contested, the draft revision also grants judicial immunity to the Head of State for acts carried out during his mandate. In February 2008, riots broke out, demanding lower prices and the departure of Paul Biya. The demonstrators are severely repressed: a hundred dead, thousands of arrests.

The constitutional revision was voted by the National Assembly in 2008. Paul Biya was therefore re-elected on October 21, 2011, with 78.0% of the vote (for a participation rate of 68.2%). While a large part of the international community doubts the validity of the results, the Supreme Court dismisses an appeal from the opposition intended to cancel the election. The US Ambassador to Cameroon, Robert Jackson, denounced "irregularities at all levels". 

On July 13, 2018, he announced that he would be a candidate for his own succession in the 2018 presidential election, for which he appeared to be a big favorite. At the same time, the country is suffering from an economic crisis, the influx of Central African refugees and an insurgency from the English-speaking minority. After the election on October 7, 2018, he was reelected with a score of 71.28% 

Biya is one of the heads of state at the most important life 

balance and critics

Nature of the plan 

His plan is often described as authoritarian. Organizations such as Amnesty International have criticized the regime of Paul Biya, accused of restricting the fundamental freedoms of Cameroonians and committing human rights violations. 

In 1990, Michel Lévêque, director of Africa at the Quai d'Orsay, wrote a confidential report entitled France's Relations with the developing countries, which highlighted the pluralism of facade in certain African countries including Cameroon. A Cameroonian politician has also spoken on this subject of "convivial dictatorship". 

On February 23, 2011, the regime's security services stood out by kidnapping Louis-Tobie Mbida, a politician yet of much less influence, in a building belonging to the Catholic Church. 

However, his supporters note progress with his coming to power ("democratization, release of political prisoners, pluralism of candidates" according to François Sudan of Jeune Afrique). 

Journalists, writers, unionists and activists are imprisoned frequently. 

Cameroon constitutes 60% of the GNP of the former French Equatorial Africa, which may explain, according to analysts, France's tolerance for the displayed weaknesses of President Biya. 

Corruption 

The fight against corruption has been the subject of initiatives under the chairmanship of Paul Biya, notably with the setting up in 2006 of Operation Sparrowhawk. This anti-corruption judicial operation led to the arrest of senior state officials, but aroused the suspicion of serving the regime to dismiss or punish competitors, or unfaithful or bulky fellow travelers. The mixed success of the operation could also be explained by the virtual impossibility of recovering the embezzled funds from foreign financial institutions. However, the National Committee against Corruption (CONAC), established in 2006, continues to operate. Corruption is used by the regime to generate allegiances. 

Ultimately, corruption remains very high: in 2018, Cameroon is ranked 145th out of 176 countries in this area by the NGO Transparency International.

The security forces (police, army, gendarmerie, secret service) are privileged by the regime. Senior army officers have obtained logging concessions and privileged access to the gaming industry. Public service staff and the salaries of civil servants are subject to recurrent cuts, except for the military and police. 

Ill-gotten goods 

In July 2009, the CCFD-Terre Solidaire report Badly acquired goods, who benefits from the crime? looks back on the Cameroonian president's pharaonic spending and his family fortune. On November 25, 2010, the Paris prosecutor's office opened a preliminary investigation for “concealment of misappropriation of public funds” on Paul Biya, following a complaint by the association Union for an active diaspora (UDA) 23 days more early. According to Issa Tchiroma, spokesman for the Cameroonian government, "the President of the Republic of Cameroon is only accountable to his people ... He does not have to answer these accusations in France", and denounces an attempt at media manipulation by opposition parties to discredit the president at the dawn of the 2011 presidential elections. 

Paul Biya's numerous “private stays” in Europe, especially in Switzerland, are the subject of recurring controversies. 

Paul Biya is also accused of absenteeism harmful to the functioning of the state. The Council of Ministers only rarely meets: for example, it held one in March 2018, for the first time in two years. Christian Pendant Ekoka, his eight-year-old former opposition counselor, said, “There is no government. It is a satrapy, a court where the courtiers fight for the prebends ”. 

His biographer Michel Roger Emvana nuances the accusations of absenteeism. Quoting Me Bédard, a close friend of President Biya, he argues that "Biya's repeated absences in Yaoundé, and his regular stays in his native village near Sangmélima are in no way perceived as a failure of the President". President Biya is according to him "the most informed man in the country thanks to the multiple daily bulletins addressed to him by the intelligence services and informal channels". Speaking even of the supposed silence of President Biya in his management of power, Me Bédard suggests that he does so deliberately: according to him, "the president likes to leave speculation to his own account. He therefore takes the opportunity to decide frankly ... He prefers to let men be wrong about his management "


Source: camerounweb.com